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Frequently Asked Questions - And Answers!


Q: What is a Smart Sensor System (SSS)?

A: The SSS is a 1 nm resolution absolute position sensor utilized in a sensor hardware system to detect vibrations, especially at extreme low frequencies (0.001 to 10 cycles per second). This ability to sense at extreme low frequencies (or extreme long wavelengths) enables it to differentiate targets, when coupled with advanced signal detection software. For example, for border security applications, humans, four legged animals, cars, trucks and tracked vehicles all have different vibration signatures and can be differentiated – hence the designation “Smart Sensor”!

Q: What is an Integrated Smart Sensor System (ISSS)?

A: The SSS described above is an innovative detection system that has by itself no means of communicating to a headquarters to provide useful information. Thus, each SSS must have its own interface control requirements that define how each system is connected or integrated via hardware and software into the whole system. For example, how it is integrated into an early warning border security system composed of cameras, radars, drones, etc. and headquarters. The ISSS incorporates the fully integrated electronic, networking software and environmental requirements with the SSS. It is this necessary and vital connection of the SSS via the ISSS to the early warning border security system that makes the system complete.

(Think of the SSS as an innovative automobile engine, the ISSS as the innovative automobile that the engine is installed in and the Early Warning Border Security System as the complete road network that the automobile can drive on. Without the automobile, the engine by itself cannot function on the road network. It is the automobile that enables the innovative engine to be of great value on the road network.)


Q: What is an Early Warning Border & Zone Security System (EWBSS)?

A: Typically (but not necessarily) a nation desiring to protect its borders utilizes a prime contractor to build a fully integrated Early Warning Border Security System (EWBSS). Each application of the EWBSS being built by the contractor has different environmental requirements and security scenarios based on the country’s needs.

A sophisticated EWBSS provided by the contractor entails a full complement of border security hardware such as tower mounted video and thermal imaging cameras, induction line sensors, physical barriers (fences), ground radars, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) and seismic sensors. Each of these individual off the shelf hardware systems must have its own interface control documents that define how each system is connected or integrated via hardware and software into the EWBSS. Thus, GII’s systems engineering capability must interact with the contractor to develop and define the system level electronic, networking software and environmental requirements to allow the SSS to be fully integrated within the EWBSS.

It is important to note that GII’s ISSS is necessary to allow the SSS to be fully integrated and operational within the contractor’s EWBSS.

For example, the EWBSS environmental requirements for a customer located in a high humidity (heat and heavy rainfall) or coastal location (wind, rain) is far different than in a desert (wind and high heat) or mountain (rain, hail, snow) environment. There are a myriad of environmental requirements that must be addressed utilizing GII’s system engineering expertise. The SSS must be “connected” to the EWBSS electronically, utilizing GII system engineered network level software and hardware. This approach of utilizing GII’s custom designed system interface software network allows the SSS to remain unchanged for each custom designed EWBSS. The ability to provide one standard SSS design coupled with GII’s custom designed interface for each EWBSS scenario provides large production, schedule and cost efficiencies.

Q: Aside from the systems level engineering GII will be providing for the SSS, what other areas of expertise does GII provide?

A: In addition to GII’s strong expertise in system level engineering and interface control documents, GII is highly qualified in program management for large, complex technology driven systems, engineering development, manufacturing in low, medium and high volume production quantities, quality assurance and supply chain management. GII’s staff has decades of experience that spans military and commercial hardware systems for military and commercial spacecraft, airborne equipment and land warfare applications. This broad experience is ideal for understanding the customer’s complex networked systems and demanding environmental requirements.


Q: How does the ISSS function for oil and gas exploration and what are its advantages?

A: Stripped down to its basic function, the SSS detects extreme low frequency vibrations (long wavelengths) regardless as to whether they are emanating from border security targets (humans, four legged animals, cars, trucks, or tracked vehicles) or from vibrations created by energy exploration companies searching for oil and gas deposits deep within the earth.

The energy exploration company typically utilizes a “thumper truck” to create a miniature earthquake by hydraulically slamming a heavy steel plate into the ground. The many sensors that have been strategically placed in the vicinity detect and differentiate vibrations reflecting off of various underground targets such as rock formations or water, oil and gas deposits (this approach is similar to a submarine sending out sonar signals with the return signals from various ships’ propellers or engines being detected and differentiated).


The ISSS is ideal for enhancing the current thumper truck energy exploration approach since the smart sensor system (SSS) and its extreme low frequency capability and higher level of sensitivity provide it the capability to detect and differentiate (with appropriate software) oil and gas reservoirs far deeper as compared to present day technology.


However, as noted in the EWBSS section, the SSS must be incorporated into the ISSS to meet system level (Energy Exploration) electronic, networking software and environmental requirements.


Q: Do the ISSS and SSS that is currently designed for EWBSS have to be redesigned for energy exploration?

A: The SSS hardware will remain the same because the EWBSS and energy exploration applications are both earth vibration (seismic) applications. The common SSS design allows for production and cost efficiencies. However, the ISSS must be custom designed for each application.

The computer and filtering interface are different for energy exploration (depth data) as compared to EWBSS (surface or near surface tunnel data). This results in different electronic filtering and algorithms. Therefore, GII’s ISSS will have different system level requirements for the interface between the customer’s energy exploration system and the SSS. While each GII interface (the ISSS) must be different to account for different scenarios, the SSS will remain the same – a benefit for production and cost efficiency.


Q: What benefits do the SSS and ISSS provide in the medical diagnostic equipment field?

A: The same detection capability as mentioned in the Border Security and Energy Exploration applications regarding the sensor’s extreme low frequency capability and high sensitivity to differentiate between humans, animals and vehicles can be utilized for medical applications.


A variation on the SSS, the Smart Medical Sensor System (SMSS), with its high resolution, sensitivity, SNR (signal to noise ratio) and wide bandwidth capability can be utilized in non-invasive medical diagnostic equipment to detect abnormalities at frequencies never before utilized. Anecdotal evidence strongly indicates that the human body has many systems that output extreme low frequency data. For example, the heart function outputs signals in the 1-10 hertz frequency band. These frequencies are impossible to detect utilizing an EKG machine but are readily detected by the SSS. This additional extreme low frequency data can complement an EKG by providing additional information to a cardiologist regarding the heart’s operating condition.


The SMSS can be integrated into medical diagnostic equipment utilizing GII’s Integrated Smart Medical Sensor System (ISMSS) to easily detect human vital signs in the extreme low frequency spectrum where other current diagnostic equipment cannot.


Diagnosing different diseases will require different interfaces and software algorithms. Therefore, GII’s ISMSS will be custom designed for each specific application to meet the needs of acquiring various human vital signs while keeping the SMSS unchanged.

IndScientAppl FAQ

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Q: Who are Global Innovations, Inc. (GII) and Precision Sensors & Instruments, LLC (PSI) and how are they related?


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